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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
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Amlodipine improves skin flap viability in rats exposed to nicotine


1 Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery, University of Health Sciences, Sisli Hamidiye Etfal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
2 Department of Pathology, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery, University of Health Sciences, Sisli Hamidiye Etfal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey

Correspondence Address:
Isil Akgun Demir,
Sisli Hamidiye Etfal Egitim Ve Arastirma Hastanesi Kat: 7 Plastik, Rekonstruktif Ve Estetik Cerrahi Klinigi 34373 Sisli, Istanbul
Turkey
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

Background: A recent series of experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated the negative effects of nicotine such as ischemia and necrosis of skin flaps. In order to overcome the negative effects of nicotine numerous studies have been conducted with various agents and methods. In this study, we investigated the effects of amlodipine (AML) on flap survival in nicotinized rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: Group A nicotine; Group B nicotine + AML; Group C control group. The rats in Group A and B have received nicotine for 4 weeks before the surgical intervention. At the end of the 4th week, MacFarlane flaps were elevated and adapted back by suturing in all groups. In Group B, AML has been administered to the rats after the surgery and continued for 10 days. All the flaps were visualized with fluorescein angiography and underwent histopathological assessment. The necrotic areas of the flaps were measured as well. Results: The necrosis rate in Group A was found to be significantly higher compared to Group B (P < 0.001). The perfusion rates in Group B were found to be significantly higher when compared to Group A (P < 0.05). Vascular proliferation was found to be significantly higher in Group B compared to Group A and C (P < 0.05). Vasodilation rates were significantly higher in Group B and C (P < 0.05). Conclusions: AML was found to be useful to enhance flap survival in nicotinized subjects. Its clinical use might be promoted in the future with the help of further studies supporting our findings.


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    -  Irmak F
    -  Demir IA
    -  Sirvan SS
    -  Bas S
    -  Karsidag S
    -  Ozagari A
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