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EDITORIAL
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 41-43

Citation Styles and Systems


Department of Plastic, Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Medicine, Reconstructive, Aesthetic, and Hand Surgery, Inciralti, Izmir, Turkey

Date of Web Publication27-Mar-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Cenk Demirdover
Department of Plastic, Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Medicine, Reconstructive, Aesthetic, and Hand Surgery, Inciralti, Izmir, 35340
Turkey
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1300-6878.255015

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How to cite this article:
Demirdover C. Citation Styles and Systems. Turk J Plast Surg 2019;27:41-3

How to cite this URL:
Demirdover C. Citation Styles and Systems. Turk J Plast Surg [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Nov 17];27:41-3. Available from: http://www.turkjplastsurg.org/text.asp?2019/27/2/41/255015



Dear Colleagues,

Citation is one of the sine qua nons of academic publishing. Any quotation or summary of data, including figures and tables, obtained from external sources should properly be cited. There are several advantages of citing:[1],[2]

  1. It fully gives the credit to the owner of the idea or knowledge
  2. It verifies the information that you share
  3. It provides accuracy check of the given information
  4. It offers further information to the readers
  5. It protects the author about any claims of plagiarism
  6. One can track the point of origin of the data
  7. A good reference list shows a detailed study and search of the author.


Even though there is no consensus in categorizing academic disciplines and their subdisciplines; they can be summarized in five different categories:[3] Medicine and Health is listed below the discipline of Applied Sciences.

  • Humanities
  • Social Sciences
  • Natural Sciences
  • Formal Sciences
  • Applied Sciences.


Each discipline bears different priorities regarding author names, dates, and publication.


  In-Text Citation Systems Top


There are mainly four different in-text citation systems:

Author-date-page number system

Right after using the information, author names, date, and the page number are given within the curved brackets.

Format: (Author's last name year, page number).

Example: (Smith and Wilkins 2012, 147).

Note that there is no comma after authors' names.

Author-date system

Right after using the information, author names, and the date are given within the curved brackets.

Format: (Author's last name year).

Example: (Smith and Wilkins 2012).

Note that there is no comma after authors' names.

Numerical system

A consecutive number is given for each reference, at the end of the sentence. The number can be formatted in superscript or within the square or curved brackets.

Format: Number or (number) or [number].

Example: 23 or (23) or [23].

Notation system

A consecutive number is given for each reference, and then, the references are listed at the bottom of the page as a footnote.

Format: Number or (number) or [number].

Example: 23 or (23) or (23).

Note that usually a line is drawn at the bottom of the page before listing references in that page.


  Citation Styles Top


There are many citation styles with the different syntax used in academic disciplines. The most common citation styles, in-text citation systems, and their disciplines can be found in [Table 1].[4]
Table 1: The most common citation styles, in-text citation systems, and their disciplines

Click here to view



  Citation Styles in Medicine Top


The most commonly used citation styles in medicine are Vancouver, AMA, and NLM systems. All these are numeric systems, but they have slight differences. A consecutive number is given for each reference, immediately at the end of the information. The number can be formatted in superscript or within the square or curved brackets. The formatting of different sources in Vancouver citation style can be found in Tasble 2.[5]


  Vancouver Citation Style Top


This system is widely used in medical publishing. It is compatible with the rules of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.[5]

In-text citation system

  • Numeric system with Arabic numbers is used
  • The numbers can be formatted in superscript or within the square or curved brackets
  • More than one reference at a time can be used by separating with commas
  • For the consecutive numbers, a dash can be used
  • Do not place space before or after comma and dashes.


Reference list

  • The reference list should begin in a new page
  • The heading “References” should be used
  • The numbers should be Arabic and in numerical order
  • Use abbreviations based on the NLM catalog
  • Do not repeat the same page number
  • End the reference with full stop.


Formatting

[Table 2] shows the formatting of different sources.
Table 2: The formatting of different sources in Vancouver citation style

Click here to view


Reference samples in Vancouver citation style

  1. Rueff F, Bedacht R, Schury G. Bite injury. Special situation as to clinical aspects, therapy and course of healing. Med Welt 1967;12:6638.
  2. Ng ZY, Eberlin KR, Lin T, Masiakos PT, Cetrulo CL Jr. Reconstruction of pediatric scalp avulsion injuries after dog bites. J Craniofac Surg 2017;28:12825.
  3. Iannelli A, Lupi G. Penetrating brain injuries from a dog bite in an infant. Pediatr Neurosurg 2005;41:415.
  4. World Health Organization Guide for Rabies Pre – And Post – Exposure Prophylaxis in Humans. World Health Organization. Available from: http://www.who.int/rabies/PEP_prophylaxis_guidelines_June10.pdf. [Last accessed on 2018 Jul 20].
  5. Macedo JL, Rosa SC, Queiroz MN, Gomes TG. Reconstruction of face and scalp after dog bites in children. Rev Col Bras Cir 2016;43:4527.
  6. Saba MI. Surgical Management of missile injuries of the head. In: Schmidek HH, Sweet WH, editors. Operative Neurosurgical Techniques. 4th ed. Vol. 1. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2000. p. 99116.




 
  References Top

1.
Available from: http://www.jli.edu.in/blog/why-referencing-referencing-styles-in-medical-writing. [Last accessed on 2019 Mar 19].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
3.
Abbott A, editor. The context of disciplines. In: Chaos of Disciplines. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press; 2001. p. 121-56.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Available from: https://www.scribbr.com/citing-sources/citation-style-overview. [Last accessed on 2019 Mar 19].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Available from: https://www.guides.lib.monash.edu/ld.php?content_id=14570618. [Last accessed on 2019 Mar 19].  Back to cited text no. 5
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

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