|Year : 2019 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 1-2
Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, Aesthetic, and Hand Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, İzmir, Turkey
|Date of Web Publication||4-Jan-2019|
Dr. Cenk Demirdover
Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, Aesthetic, and Hand Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, Inciralti, Izmir 35340
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Demirdover C. The plagiarism. Turk J Plast Surg 2019;27:1-2
The plagiarism can be defined as the practice of taking someone else's work or ideas and passing them off as one's own. It basically refers to an act of stealing and widely used for academic stealing. When we search the word “plagiarism” in PubMed, it returns with 1655 scientific publications related to plagiarism.
The organizations in medical publication platforms define plagiarism in detail. According to the original guidelines of The Committee on Publication Ethics which is published in 1999, “Plagiarism ranges from the unreferenced use of others' published and unpublished ideas, including research grant applications to submission under “new” authorship of a complete paper, sometimes in a different language. It may occur at any stage of planning, research, writing, or publication: It applies to print and electronic versions.” However, this definition only gives some idea about it and to make an act in a case of plagiarism more detailed guidelines are required.
World Association of Medical Editors define this concept as follows: “Plagiarism is the use of others' published and unpublished ideas or words (or other intellectual property) without attribution or permission, and presenting them as new and original rather than derived from an existing source. The intent and effect of plagiarism are to mislead the reader as to the contributions of the plagiarizer. This applies whether the ideas or words are taken from abstracts, research grant applications, Institutional Review Board applications, or unpublished or published manuscripts in any publication format (print or electronic).”
There are different types of plagiarism, all based on unethical issues:,,,
- Direct Plagiarism: The whole text or a part of the text is copied word-for-word without citing or pointing out the source. This is one of the most common types of plagiarism
- Paraphrasing/Rephrasing: It is similar to the direct plagiarism, but in this case, the plagiarizer rearranges the words of the text or sometimes rephrase it abiding by its content
- Summarizing: The plagiarizer does not use the whole text, but instead, he/she summarizes the content
- Self-Plagiarism: The author uses his/her own previous work without giving any credit to it
- Mosaic Plagiarism: The plagiarizer combines different sources and restates it with his/own words
- Bypassing: Instead of citing a single paper, the author uses several references that are used in this paper
- Nonexisting source: The author cites a source that actually does not exist. The nonexisting source is intentionally created and contains no data or previously known a nonexisting source has been used
- Theoretical Plagiarism: The plagiarizer uses unpublished ideas of another people. For example, some authors use the knowledge presented but not yet published in scientific meetings and publish a paper before the owner of the knowledge
- Editorial Plagiarism: This is one of the most severe forms of plagiarism. When a manuscript is submitted to a scientific journal, anyone from the editorial board who has an access to the paper takes the basic idea and publishes as his/her own work
- Unintentional Plagiarism: In very rare situations, the author could not be aware of already published data. However, checking the available data is the author's own responsibility.
Any type of plagiarism is unacceptable. The lack of creativity, the pressure on the credibility for academic purposes and the laziness are the main reasons for the plagiarism. The basic idea which lies behind this is using an easy shortcut in academic promotion.
Nowadays, there are many software which can detect the act of plagiarism easily. The software programs basically compare the whole manuscript or its selected part with currently available online published data. Then, the software marks the presumably plagiarized text and creates a similarity report. The rejection of a manuscript can be decided based on these reports.
Any kind of cheating gives damages to science and creates a butterfly effect. All the authors should produce papers just for science, not for numbers in the criteria of academic promotions.
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